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JOURNAL OF LAND PORTS AND BORDER ECONOMY

The Land Ports Authority of India is in the process of launching the ‘Journal of Land Ports and Border Economy’ which will publish original research covering the development of theories and concepts, methodological perspectives, empirical analysis and policy debate in the field of land port development and border studies with particular reference to India. The journal is an interdisciplinary forum, which showcases diverse perspectives and analytical techniques.

The focus on promotion of border trade, development of land ports and associated progress of border economies is a relatively new concept with limited literature on the subject issue. An exclusive international journal on this subject is expected to contribute towards the understanding of the importance of land ports in cross-border trade and passenger movement by fostering and supporting original research covering the development of theories and concepts, methodological perspectives, empirical analysis and policy debate in this field.  The major target audience of the journal would include practitioners, research scholars, and academicians involved in theoretical and empirical research on cross-border trade and development issues.

Among its regular features are research articles and book reviews. Special issues are also published on specific themes.

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RESEARCH ON ICPs IN INDIA

Disclaimer: The paper was first published on the website of the Centre for Social and Economic Progress

Linking Land Borders: India’s Integrated Check Posts

Riya Sinha | June 2021

Abstract

This paper examines the role of India’s Integrated Check Posts (ICPs) in South Asia in facilitating regional connectivity. The ICPs are entry and exit points on India’s land borders and house various facilities such as customs, immigration, and border security, quarantine, among others, within a single facilitation zone. Formulated in the early 2000s in the aftermath of the Kargil War (1999) and initiated since 2012, the ICPs have helped streamline cross-border trade and passenger flows through the modernisation of border management infrastructure. In 2019-20, 40% of India’s total trade with Bangladesh, Nepal, Myanmar, and Pakistan took place through the six ICPs at Agartala, Petrapole, Raxaul, Jogbani, Moreh and Attari.

However, several challenges such as the lack of mirror infrastructure in the neighbouring countries, limitations in public-private partnership, and ground-level issues including inadequate warehousing space to handle increasing volumes, ...

Disclaimer: The paper was first published on the website of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)

India-Myanmar Border Trade

Nisha Taneja, Tin Htoo Naing, Sanjana Joshi, Thiyam Bharat Singh, Samridhi Bimal, Sakshi Garg, Riya Roy and Manali Sharma| 2019

Abstract

As India seeks to strengthen trade, investment and other forms of economic cooperation with ASEAN, Myanmar is an essential strategic partner, since it is the only ASEAN nation with which India shares both land and maritime borders. As a ‘gateway’ to South East Asia, Myanmar is also vital in terms of economic development for India’s North East Region (NER). India shares a 1643 km long border in four north-eastern states – Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, and Mizoram - with Myanmar and this geographical proximity provides opportunity for the hitherto economically isolated northeast states of India to link to economic opportunities and markets in the east, building on their strong historical socio- cultural and economic linkages with Myanmar. To this end, India’s Act East Policy is increasingly being projected as the new economic development strategy for India's NER envisaging deeper economic integration of the region with

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Disclaimer: The paper was first published on the website of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)

India-Bhutan Economic Relations

Nisha Taneja, Samridhi Bimal, Taher Nadeem and Riya Roy | 2019

Abstract

The year 2018 was a milestone year for India-Bhutan relationship as the countries celebrated the accomplishments of the last fifty years of time-tested and special ties. The mutually beneficial economic ties have been the centre-piece of India-Bhutan relationship. India is Bhutan’s largest export market, the biggest source of its imports and one of the top foreign investors in the country. India also provides Bhutan transit facility through its territory to access sea ports for trading with rest of the world. Cooperation in hydropower projects is one of the most significant examples of win-win cooperation between India and Bhutan. These projects are a reliable source of inexpensive and clean electricity to India, a major contributor towards Bhutanese GDP and strengthening India-Bhutan economic integration. Bhutan has been pivotal to two of India’s major foreign policies – the ‘Neighborhood First Policy’ and the ‘Act-East Policy’. After coming into power in 2014, the Narendra Modi-led BJP government has laid special emphasis on India’s neighborhood as well as

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Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)

Strengthening India-Nepal Economic Relations

Nisha Taneja, Shravani Prakash, Samridhi Bimal, Sakshi Garg and Riya Roy | 2019

Abstract

India and Nepal have traditionally shared a unique relationship of friendship and economic cooperation. The relationship is characterized by an open and people-friendly border and is built on shared historical, cultural, linguistic, ethnic links between people residing in India and Nepal.

With Nepal being a priority under India ‘Neighborhood First’ policy, strengthening the economic relationship holds immense significance and potential for both the countries. India is Nepal’s largest export market, the biggest source of its imports and the top investor of foreign capital stock. India also provides Nepal transit facility through its territory to access sea ports for trading with rest of the world.

Given this, the main objective of this paper is to suggest policy measures which can increase bilateral trade and investment between India and Nepal. We analyse the bilateral trade patterns and estimate the maximum additional ...

Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of Consumer Unity & Trust Society (CUTS) International

Bridging the East: Trade and Transport Connectivity in the Bay of Bengal Region

CUTS International | 2019

Abstract

An integrated South Asia has remained an aspiration of many down the ages. Several challenges have stood in the way of conversion of physical proximity from a liability to an asset. It is a fact that South Asian countries find it more convenient, and as per a recent World Bank study far more cost-effective, to trade with distant economies (as distant as those in the Latin Americas) than with their neighbours. And yet, this sub-region arguably possesses various economic complementarities which can benefit people of the region at large.

The sub-regional transportation and transit system in the Bay of Bengal Region is marred by several complexities like infrastructure bottlenecks, procedural difficulties and delays, rent-seeking, corruption, governance issues, etc. Reforms in all these areas are necessary to facilitate trade among these countries. An integrated and well-coordinated network across countries in this region will act as a catalyst for developing cross-border value chains and connect these countries

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Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of the Bureau of Research on Industry and Economic Fundamentals (BRIEF)

Bridging Infrastructural Deficits at Select Trade Ports in India

Shakti Sinha, Afaq Hussain, Samit Chakraborty, Riya Sinha and Akhtar Malik| 2016

Abstract

The report ‘Bridging Infrastructural Deficits at Select Trade Ports in India’ is the outcome of a year-long quantitative and qualitative study, initiated in April 2015, by Bureau of Research on Industry and Economic Fundamentals (BRIEF). The study is aimed at facilitating India’s trade and improving its trading environment through infrastructural and policy reforms at select land and sea ports. For a developing economy of India’s size and potential, infrastructural development at trade ports is necessary to capitalize on trade opportunities and thereby promote overall growth.

The focus of government has been towards the development and modernization of both land and sea ports as a result of initiatives like Sagarmala program, Ease of Doing Business which are aimed at enhancing the cross border trade ecosystem and connectivity. Development and upgradation of Infrastructural, operational and regulatory aspects

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Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER)

Facilitating India-Pakistan Trade through the Land Route

Nisha Taneja, Isha Dayal and Samridhi Bimal | 2016

Abstract

Improvements in the land route between India and Pakistan can help lower transaction costs which can play in important role in realizing the trade potential between the two countries. Connecting India and Pakistan by the land route offers gains not only to the two countries but would spread over a wide geography covering several countries.

With the vision of connecting India and Pakistan to Central Asia and East Asia, this paper makes an attempt to examine trade between India and Pakistan by different modes of transport, identify physical and non-physical impediments to transporting goods by rail and road while taking into account the implications of trade policy for transporting goods; suggests measures to address these constraints which are also in compliance with the provisions in the recently signed WTO Agreement on Trade Facilitation. The paper also suggests how acceding to international conventions will make it easier for the two countries to connect with the rest of the world.

Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of Consumer Unity & Trust Society (CUTS) International

Non-Tariff Measures to Food Trade in India: A Case Study of selected Ports

The Asia Foundation, CUTS International and Centre for Policy Research | 2016

Abstract

NTMs have emerged as major impediments to the growth of intra- regional trade and economic integration in South Asia. It is widely agreed that the elimination of NTMs, particularly TBT, SPS and infrastructural and procedural related barriers would contribute substantially to the growth of regional trade in the region. Existing studies also point that NTMs result in low volume of intra- regional trade in agriculture and food products between South Asian nations. This study makes key observations about the prevailing NTMs to India’s trade with Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal and United Kingdom. There are various kinds of NTMs in India; however, the key NTMs in India are related to TBT, SPS, and infrastructural, process and procedural barriers. India lacks soft and hard infrastructure at land and sea ports and this adds significant amount of time and cost to trade in food products. The absence of testing and trade standard related agencies, especially at land ports, also significantly affects trade with neighbouring countries. Key issues related

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Disclaimer:The paper was first published on the website of Consumer Unity & Trust Society (CUTS) International

Indo-Bangladesh Trade Potentiality – An Assessment of Trade Facilitation Issues

CUTS International | 2014

Abstract

India and Bangladesh offer natural markets for many products. In their mutual trade, they enjoy the advantages of reduced transaction costs and quicker delivery due to geographical proximity, common language and a heritage of common physical infrastructure. Unfortunately, though they enjoy mutual comparative advantage in many products, bilateral trade stood at US$ 5.5bn in the year 2012, which is far below the potential. Lowering incidence of barriers such as poor trade infrastructure and services through progressive reforms could lead to substantial lowering of bilateral trade costs and estimates indicate that bilateral trade in about 60 identified high potential commodities could rise by about US$1.2bn per annum, which is more than 20 percent of the current volume of bilateral trade. Therefore, this study underscores the development, structure and current picture of India-Bangladesh trade which happens through land routes to come out with a set of policy recommendations for trade facilitation and enhancement of greater economic

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